Two books for learning Spanish in 19th century England

The Spanish language started attracting widespread attention in Britain in the 19th century, when “Great Britain’s attitude to Spain was softening, and former prejudices were giving way to a new understanding” (The emergence and growth of Hispanic studies in British and Irish universities, 2018.11.705).

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First issue of Bulletin of Spanish Studies (Dec. 1923) P744.c.6.1

Modern languages were officially introduced in the 19th century in universities such as King’s College London and University College London, and later, in the so-called Redbrick universities (Birmingham, Liverpool, Leeds, Manchester, Sheffield and Bristol) – the term “redbrick” was coined by an influential English Hispanist, Edgar Allison Peers, Professor at Liverpool and founder of the Bulletin of Spanish studies (1923). These newer universities were more open to the study of modern languages than the historic universities, such as Oxford and Cambridge. Continue reading

The feat of the Real Academia Española’s first dictionary (part 2)

The dictionary lacked a general method and workflows were divided among the authors by combinations of letters. They took for granted that every academic was equally qualified, worked at the same speed, and was following the same criteria as the rest of the team – criteria which, incidentally, were not precisely established from the start. For instance, not all authors were using the same edition of a given work to find the quotes from authorities, so knowing the folio or page number is not particularly useful. The original intentions were too ambitious and some cuts in the plan were required. There was no room for adding the vocabulary of the arts and sciences. This task was postponed, with plans for an eventual separate dictionary dedicated to that vocabulary; a project never undertaken. Continue reading

The feat of the Real Academia Española’s first dictionary (part 1)

The Diccionario de la lengua castellana (1726-1739), later known as Diccionario de autoridades, was the first modern Spanish lexicographical work. The Real Academia Española (RAE) was founded in 1713 under the royal auspices and the first generation of academics decided to record the Spanish vocabulary following the example of the language academies in Paris and Florence. They considered that the Spanish language had achieved its zenith in the 17th century, so it was time to preserve it for future generations. This was a huge challenge, considering that the only Spanish precedent, the Tesoro de la lengua castellana, o española (1611) by Sebastián de Covarrubias, one of the first monolingual dictionaries in a vernacular language, was around one hundred years old. They did their job altruistically, “for the honour of serving the Nation”. The founder and first director, Juan Manuel Fernández Pacheco, Marquis of Villena and Duke of Escalona was an inspiring figure and played a major role in the institution. The purpose of the academy was reflected in its motto “Limpia, fija y da esplendor” ([It] cleans, [it] fixes, and [it] gives splendour). Continue reading